Since lemmings like to nest in small, narrow enclosures (like boxes the size of a fist), it is important for the enclosure have a second exit, so the defender can escape into another part of the terrarium. Lemming fights sometimes leave no exterior signs of violence, but can cause fatal internal bleeding. More often, fights result in lacerations, often around the hind legs, bottom and genitals.

The aggressor will try to trap the defending lemming in a corner and then attack with his teeth and short claws. Excited chirps, chattering and running typically accompany a fight - in most cases, the whole colony will be disturbed. (While activity of this kind is amusing for new owners, it should be observed very carefully, since peaceful lemming colonies are much quieter than ones characterized by aggressive behavior.)

A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.

living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.

The steppe lemming or steppe vole (Lagurus lagurus) is a small, plump, light-grey rodent, similar in appearance to the Norway lemming (Lemmus lemmus), but not in the same genus. The steppe lemming eats shoots and leaves and is more active at night, though it is not strictly nocturnal. In the wild, it is found in Russia and Ukraine in steppes and semiarid environments. Fossil remains of this species have been found in areas as far west as Great Britain.

Although it has not actually been proved that steppe lemmings are sugar intolerant, many owners find that they do not live for longer than a couple of months after they have purchased them and realization hits in when they work out that they have been feeding them the wrong foods.

Referring to a burrowing life-style or behavior, specialized for digging or burrowing.

An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.

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A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.

From Southern Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Dzungaria to Siberia, Western Mongolia, Chinese Turkistan and Sinkiang. Natural Habitat Mainly dry steppe, but also found in semi-desert areas and occasionally pastures and cultivated fields. Handling

It is the most common domestic vole, being particularly well known in Europe. (In the US and Canada, it is still considered an exotic animal.)

having the capacity to move from one place to another.

Grass gathered outdoors may harbor parasites and toxins and should not be used unless gathered from meadows away from inhabited areas, roads and not frequented by dogs or used for grazing. No matter where any grass or moss has been obtained, and even if it is only intended for bedding, it should be kept in a freezer for three days to eliminate parasites such as lice and mites.

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.

Standard rodent food containing bits of dried fruit is not appropriate; as their natural diets do not contain much sugar, steppe lemmings are somewhat diabetic, and become sick or even die from overdosing on sugar. A sugar-free, no molasses food that does not contain dried fruit and little sunflower and other oily seeds should be used; laboratory rodent foods may be a cheap alternative. Additionally, steppe lemmings need grass and other leafy greens, such as alfalfa, to thrive.

Are you thinking of getting steppe lemmings? They are wonderfully cute creatures that are fast as anything and terribly funny to watch. You may have seen them in pet shops around your area and wondered if they would be easy to care for and in some cases the answer to this would be yes, but only if you are willing to put in a little more effort and time than what you would with normally small, furry pets.

the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.

animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.

Once a male has become aggressive - even with an outsider - he should be considered dangerous, watched very closely and - if possible - be neutered and placed with a group of females. Although neutering a lemming is a difficult operation typically attempted only by veterinary hospitals, it is possible. A neutered alpha male will generally not become less aggressive toward other males.

Generally, people are put off by the idea of having steppe lemmings as pets because of their bad reputation for being fussy eaters and hard to look after. This is not strictly true and as long as you are willing to pay a little bit more for the food and sawdust, as they need quite a bit, then they will prove to be very entertaining pets that will live for a couple of years.

This lemming is found in steppe, forest-steppe and semidesert parts of western Mongolia, northwest China, many parts of the former USSR, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, the southern and middle Ural, and western and eastern Siberia.[1]

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A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.

Fights (as well as unintentional accidents) can also occur in and around exercise wheels.

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young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.

associates with others of its species; forms social groups.

Hay is used as bedding for steppe lemmings but alongside the nesting purposes, they also eat the hay as well which kills two birds with one stone. Ideally you will have a layer of thick sawdust, between five and 10 cm deep and then cover this with four or five cm of hay which they will then move about as they wish.

Steppe Lemming

Adam Rountrey (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor, instructor), Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.

the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.

Sexing Males can be distinguished by the prominent bulge of the testes. The anal-genital gap is approximately twice as wide in the male as in the female.

defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement

reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female

that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).

having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.

Clean water should be always available; the amount actually drunk varies with the food consumed. Willow twigs need to be provided for abrading the continuously growing teeth. Lemmings can drink from a shallow dish, but since they typically track their bedding into the water, a bottle with a ball valve is better.

places a food item in a special place to be eaten later. Also called "hoarding"

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services.