Here is the taxonomy of goats, according to ITIS:

The domestic goat is about 70-120 cm (28-48 inches). They weigh from 45-54 kg (100-120 lb.).

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Some breeds of sheep and goats look similar, but they can usually be told apart because goat tails are short and usually point up, whereas sheep tails hang down and are usually longer and bigger – though some (like those of Northern European short-tailed sheep) are short, and longer ones are often docked.

Dairy goats in their prime (generally around the third or fourth lactation cycle) average—2.7 to 3.6 kg (6 to 8 lb)—of milk production daily—roughly 2.8 to 3.8 l (3 to 4 U.S. qt)—during a ten-month lactation, producing more just after freshening and gradually dropping in production toward the end of their lactation. The milk generally averages 3.5% butterfat.[45]

Several mythological hybrid creatures are believed to consist of parts of the goat, including the Chimera. The Capricorn sign in the Western zodiac is usually depicted as a goat with a fish's tail. Fauns and satyrs are mythological creatures that are part goat and part human. The mineral bromine is named from the Greek word "brόmos", which means "stench of he-goats".

Kingdom: Animalia Subkingdom: Bilateria Infrakingdom: Deuterostomia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Infraphylum: Gnathostomata Superclass: Tetrapoda Class: Mammalia Subclass: Theria Infraclass: Eutheria Order: Artiodactyla Family: Bovidae Subfamily: Caprinae Genera & species:

Goats reach puberty between three and 15 months of age, depending on breed and nutritional status. Many breeders prefer to postpone breeding until the doe has reached 70% of the adult weight. However, this separation is rarely possible in extensively managed, open-range herds.[17]

Also according to the Canadian Federal Health Department – Health Canada, most of the dangers or counter-indication of feeding unmodified goat milk to infants, are similar to those incurring in the same practice with cow's milk, namely in the allergic reactions.[51]

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Goat milk is commonly processed into cheese, butter, ice cream, yogurt, cajeta and other products. Goat cheese is known as fromage de chèvre ("goat cheese") in France. Some varieties include Rocamadour and Montrachet.[46] Goat butter is white because goats produce milk with the yellow beta-carotene converted to a colorless form of vitamin A.

The domestic goat has cloven hooves, a long beard on its chin, a short tail that turns up, and horns that grow up from the head in an arc. The hair is straight with a woolly coat under it during winter.

Goats are famous leapers and can survive perfectly well in the wild. So build your fences at least five feet high. Electric fences must be three strand affairs.

Among the mammals, see, milk is produced only when the female is or has been pregnant. And, when a male approaches a lactating female, certain odorous chemicals are released into the milk. This is true for humans. Caress your wife while she's nursing a baby and the baby will wrinkle it's face. So. To keep goat milk from smelling, segregate the bucks from the lactating does. And wash off the udder. Keep the hair clipped back. Stuff like that.

There are about 200 breeds of domestic goat, according to the Smithsonian Institution, so sizes vary greatly. One of the smallest breeds, the Nigerian dwarf goat, weighs about 20 lbs. (9 kg). Pygmy goats weigh from 53 to 86 lbs. (24 to 39 kg). The Anglo-Nubian goat weighs up to 250 lbs. (113 kg). 

Goat breeds fall into overlapping, general categories. They are generally distributed in those used for dairy, fiber, meat, skins, and as companion animals. Some breeds are also particularly noted as pack goats.

Female goats are referred to as "does" or "nannies;" intact males are called "bucks" or "billies;" and juveniles of both sexes are called "kids". Castrated males are called "wethers". Goat meat from younger animals is called "kid" or cabrito (Spanish), while meat from older animals is known simply as "goat" or sometimes called chevon, or in some areas "mutton" (which more often refers to adult sheep meat).

The domestic goat (Capra hircus or Capra aegagrus hircus) is a domesticated mammal. It comes from the wild goat. A male goat is called a buck and a castrated goat is called a whether, a female is called a doe. Young goats are called kids.

Goats are members of the Bovidae family, which also includes antelopes, cattle and sheep, according to the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). Other members of the Capragenus include the ibex, markhors and turs, which are sometimes called wild goats. Mountain goats are the only living species in the genus Oreamnos.

The goat has utility—he can survive and prosper in country that would starve a cow. With his leathery mouth and fantastic digestive system, there's mighty little a goat won't eat. True, some plants are poisonous to him (such as the False Hellebore, whatever that is) but it is only starvation which drives a goat to eat such.

Goats produce about 2% of the world's total annual milk supply.[43] Some goats are bred specifically for milk. If the strong-smelling buck is not separated from the does, his scent will affect the milk.

The digestive physiology of a very young kid (like the young of other ruminants) is essentially the same as that of a monogastric animal. Milk digestion begins in the abomasum, the milk having bypassed the rumen via closure of the reticuloesophageal groove during suckling. At birth, the rumen is undeveloped, but as the kid begins to consume solid feed, the rumen soon increases in size and in its capacity to absorb nutrients.

Pet goats may be found in many parts of the world when a family keeps one or more animals for emotional reasons rather than as production animals. It is becoming more common for goats to be kept exclusively as pets in North America and Europe.

A cousin of the goat, Capra caucasica, or West Caucasian tur, a mountain-dwelling goat-antelope found only in the Caucasus mountains, is considered endangered by the IUCN because of an estimated population decline of more than 50 percent over the past three generations. 

Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans.[5] The most recent genetic analysis[6] confirms the archaeological evidence that the wild Bezoar ibex of the Zagros Mountains is the likely original ancestor of probably all domestic goats today.[5]

In India, Nepal, and much of Asia, goats are kept largely for milk production, both in commercial and household settings. The goats in this area may be kept closely housed or may be allowed to range for fodder. The Salem Black goat is herded to pasture in fields and along roads during the day, but is kept penned at night for safe-keeping.[38]

The goat is a member of the family Bovidae and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over 300 distinct breeds of goat.[1] Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species, and have been used for their milk, meat, hair, and skins over much of the world.[2] In 2011, there were more than 924 million live goats around the globe, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization.[3]

Mountain goats are found in the Rocky Mountains, typically in Alaska, western Montana, central Idaho, South Dakota, Colorado and Washington. The wide spread of their cloven hooves allows them to climb steep mountain sides with ease. They usually live in elevations of 3,281 to 16,404 feet (1,000 to 5,000 meters) above sea level. 

Domestic Goat

Life expectancy for goats is between fifteen and eighteen years.[33] An instance of a goat reaching the age of 24 has been reported.[34]

Goats are ruminants, and like cattle, they have four stomach compartments. The rumen can hold 4 to 6 gallons (15 to 23 liters); the reticulum can hold up to 0.26 to 0.5 gallons (0.98 to 1.9 liters); the omasum can hold up to 0.26 gallons (0.98 liters) and the abomasum can hold up to 1 gallon (3.8 liters). It takes 11 to 15 hours for food to pass through a goat's digestive system.

A goat is useful to humans when it is living and when it is dead, first as a renewable provider of milk, manure, and fiber, and then as meat and hide.[35] Some charities provide goats to impoverished people in poor countries, because goats are easier and cheaper to manage than cattle, and have multiple uses. In addition, goats are used for driving and packing purposes.

Goats become sexually mature at an early age. Females can breed from the age of twelve months, although most breeders will wait until they are 18 months. This is because a pregnancy at a very young age can damage the mother’s growth. Males are sexually mature at 5 months so separating male kids from their mother at this time is important. Kids are born well developed and can be separated from their mother as early as four days old.

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The wild goat is threatened in the wild across their range and have disappeared from a number of areas. The main threats are hunting for skins and meat, habitat destruction and competition with livestock.

The intestine of goats is used to make "catgut", which is still in use as a material for internal human surgical sutures and strings for musical instruments. The horn of the goat, which signifies plenty and wellbeing (the cornucopia), is also used to make spoons.[36]

And then you have Mohair, which comes from goats—real genuine mohair that is. And Moroccan leather comes from goats. Everybody else in the world loves goats. Why don't you Americans dig goats? I don't know. I just don't know. I don't know if it's stupidity or if it's because you love to squander.

When handled as a group, goats tend to display less herding behavior than sheep. When grazing undisturbed, they tend to spread across the field or range, rather than feed side-by-side as do sheep. When nursing young, goats will leave their kids separated ("lying out") rather than clumped, as do sheep. They will generally turn and face an intruder and bucks are more likely to charge or butt at humans than are rams[clarification needed].[28]

Anyway, I, assuming an unbending attitude, cheerfully salute the goat. Oh. Somebody (my wife) just asked how come goat's milk stinks. Mismanagement, that's why.

Several factors can reduce this average expectancy; problems during kidding can lower a doe's expected life span to ten or eleven, and stresses of going into rut can lower a buck's expected life span to eight to ten years.[34]

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the top producers of goat milk in 2008 were India (4 million metric tons), Bangladesh (2.16 million metric tons) and the Sudan (1.47 million metric tons).[37]