Fig. S8 The mismatch distribution of the observed and expected values calculated on the number of pairwise nucleotide differences in 6694 bp mtDNA from seven ancient‐domestic and 10 modern dromedaries.

Fig. S2 Proportions of raw (grey), trimmed (blue) and mapped (green) reads obtained from sequencing the DSLs, which were captured with MYbaits touchdown approach for four ancient‐domestic and one wild dromedary samples.

Fig. S6 Average read length distribution for five ancient‐domestic samples from Syria (Apamea, Palmyra) and one sample from Turkey (Sagalassos) obtained from sequencing the enriched DSLs.

The researchers collected and analyzed genetic information from a sample of 1,083 living dromedaries from 21 countries around the world. The team combined this with an examination of ancient DNA sequences from bone samples from early-domesticated dromedaries from 400-1870 CE and wild ones from 5,000-1,000 BCE to reveal an historic genetic picture of the species.

Methods S1 Example commands used for different analyses in this study.

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Correspondence: Elmira Mohandesan, Fax: +43 1 25077 7941; E‐mail: elmira.mohandesan@vetmeduni.ac.at

Single-humped Arabian camels, also called dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius), have been fundamental to the development of human societies, providing food and transport in desert countries for over 3,000 years.

Fig. S3 Histogram of the base quality scores corrected in the forward (green line), reverse (blue line) and unpaired (yellow line) raw reads.

Long, back-and-forth journeys by caravans shaped the single-humped camel’s genetic diversity, according to new research on both ancient and modern DNA.

Fig. S3 Proportions of raw (grey), trimmed (blue) and mapped reads (green) obtained from shotgun sequencing of DSL constructed from seven ancient‐domestic and four wild dromedary samples.

Fig. S1 The count of unique 31‐mers that are found n (multiplicity) times in the trimmed and error‐corrected paired‐end reads (blue line).

Unfortunately, because they are so big, food cost can be high.

Table S1 Sample ID, geographical locations and age of ancient‐domestic and wild (extinct) dromedary specimens used in this study.

Lifestyle Pets claimed to have been breeding these animals when in fact they were just marking up Savannah Cats. DNA evidence later proved the speculations. Savannah Cats are just a cross-breed of the exotic Serval and a house cat but will still set you back about $7,000.

Table S6 Summary of the non‐coding RNA annotations in the dromedary genome assembly.

They are skittish as babies but can be trained to be very tame and friendly adults.

In the event it is legal to keep a Mona Guenon the insurance on these animals can cost a small fortune. There is also a very good possibility that even if you keep a Mona Guenon as a pet, it might be perfectly friendly around you, but might not be so kind to outsiders.

Fig. S7 Cumulative number of genes ordered by increasing AED (annotation edit distance) scores.

Fig. S6 Histogram of the lengths (in base‐pairs) of alignment blocks between our dromedary genome assembly and the reference (Accession no. GCA_000767585.1).

A 2005 report issued jointly by the Ministry of Health (Saudi Arabia) and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention details five cases of bubonic plague in humans resulting from the ingestion of raw camel liver. Four of the five patients had severe pharyngitis and submandibular lymphadenitis. Yersinia pestis was isolated from the camel's bone marrow, from the jird (Meriones libycus) and from fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) captured at the camel's corral.[124]

Dromedaries are mainly active during daylight hours. They form herds of about 20 individuals, which are led by a dominant male. This camel feeds on foliage and desert vegetation; several adaptations, such as the ability to tolerate losing more than 30% of its total water content, allow it to thrive in its desert habitat. Mating occurs annually and peaks in the rainy season; females bear a single calf after a gestation of 15 months.

The findings appear in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Rhesus Macaques will also need a specialized vet so their health care cost is higher than most domesticated animals. Be warned: Health care costs won’t stop at the Macaque. They’re known to carry a range of diseases so you might find yourself in and out of the hospital as well. They’re also known to get agitated and attack their owners from time to time.

Correspondence: Robert R. Fitak, Fax: 919‐660‐7293; E‐mail: robert.fitak@duke.edu

The Lavender Albino Python also comes with a load of maintenance costs. As it’s a cold blooded creature it needs equipment to keep its body temperature regulated and they are known for a variety of health issues such as mouth rot, being attacked by their own food (rats and mice), respiratory illnesses, and issues shedding in captivity.

"The genetic diversity we have discovered, thanks to restocking from wild 'ghost' dromedary populations, is quite remarkable in the history of its domestication," says Faisal Almathen. (Credit: Cesar I. Martins/Flickr)

While one of these primates might be loyal and friendly to their owner, they are protectors of their group, so it’s very possible your otherwise friendly monkey could attack your friends and family if they feel they are a threat to themselves or their owner.

Table S2 The Illumina P7 and in‐house designed P5 adapters with two indices, one nested within P7 and one additional 8 bp barcode at 3′ end of P5 adapter.

Pamela Burger, Fax: +43 1 25077 7941; E‐mail: pamela.burger@vetmeduni.ac.at

The Dromedary Camel is very easily domesticated, so much so it is believed that they only exist as a domesticated species and none exist in the wild.

Domestic Dromedary Camel

These birds used to be fed food as inexpensive and as easy to obtain as dog kibble, but as more humans have kept them as pets it’s been discovered they have much greater nutritional needs. The Palm Cockatoo’s diet may consist of an assortment of fruits, nuts and vegetables, sweet potatoes, and current super-food kale.

Since camels have a slow growth rate;[69] they reach sexual maturity only in advanced years. The age of sexual maturity varies geographically and depends on the individual, as does the reproductive period. Both sexes might mature by three to five years of age, though successful breeding could take longer. Mating occurs once a year, and peaks in the rainy season. The mating season lasts three to five months, but may last a year for older animals.[14][70]

Table S3 The accession numbers of raw reads for the dromedary reference (Accession no. GCA_000767585.1) downloaded and used for comparison.

While a number of primates make the list, it should be noted it is not recommended. Another added cost is fines around $5,000 in areas that don’t permit these types of animals as pets.

Fig. S4 Comparison of (A) the number of scaffolds, (B) N50 length, (C) Proportion of 248 core eukaryotic genes (CEGs) annotated, and (D) longest scaffold length for various k‐mer sizes used to assemble the genome.

Table S2 Summary of the de novo assemblies made using both uncorrected and error‐corrected (‐C) reads.

Fig. S2 The count (A) and cumulative proportion (B) of unique 20‐mers that are found n (multiplicity) times in the raw, paired‐end sequencing reads (red line) and the trimmed and error‐corrected paired‐end reads (blue line).

Table S4 Average sequence read lengths (bp) for enriched DSL (MYbaits/‐TD) for 14 ancient‐domestic and four wild dromedary samples.