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78 foreground recordings and 25 background recordings of Gracula religiosa . Total recording duration 57:10.

They build a nest in a hole in a tree. The usual clutch is two or three eggs.[2]

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One bird calling from canopy about 20m above while another responded to call a distant away.

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The common hill myna is often detected by its loud, shrill, descending whistles followed by other calls. It is most vocal at dawn and dusk, when it is found in small groups in forest clearings high in the canopy.[2]

Both sexes can produce an extraordinarily wide range of loud calls – whistles, wails, screeches, and gurgles, sometimes melodious and often very human-like in quality. Each individual has a repertoire of three to 13 such call types, which may be shared with some near neighbours of the same sex, being learned when young. Dialects change rapidly with distance, such that birds living more than 15 km apart have no call-types in common with one another.[2]

natural vocalization; calls from one of a pair, given when the bird was in the nest cavity poking its head out. These birds are from an established, though local, population in southern Florida.

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Introduced populations (probably nominate race) established in SE USA (Florida), Puerto Rico and Hawaii.

Often treated as conspecific with G. indica, G. enganensis and G. robusta. Birds from Flores (Lesser Sundas), described as race mertensi, considered inseparable from venerata. Seven subspecies recognized.

The hill mynas are popular cage birds, renowned for their ability to imitate speech. The widely distributed common hill myna is the one most frequently seen in aviculture. Demand outstrips captive breeding capacity, so they are rarely found in pet stores and usually purchased directly from breeders or importers who can certify the birds are traded legally.

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With the Southern, Nias and Enggano hill mynas as separate species, the common hill myna, Gracula religiosa, has seven or eight subspecies which differ only slightly. They are:[3]

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See: Trainor, C. R., Verbelen, P, and Johnstone, R. E. (2012). The avifauna of Alor and Pantar, Lesser Sundas, Indonesia. Forktail – Journal of Asian Ornithology 28: 53-68.

The Xeno-canto Foundation receives generous financial support from Naturalis Biodiversity Center

natural vocalization; song from a pair of birds perched on a wire near a nest cavity. These birds are from an established, though local, population in southern Florida.

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This myna is almost entirely arboreal, moving in large, noisy groups of half a dozen or so, in tree-tops at the edge of the forest. It hops sideways along the branch, unlike the characteristic jaunty walk of other mynas. Like most starlings, the hill myna is fairly omnivorous, eating fruit, nectar and insects.[2]

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Common Hill Myna

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This is a stocky jet-black myna, with bright orange-yellow patches of naked skin and fleshy wattles on the side of its head and nape. At about 29 cm length, it is somewhat larger than the common myna (Acridotheres tristis).[2]