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This divide marks out Lincoln from many other historic cities in England and elsewhere in Europe.

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In 2016 a local television channel called That's Lincolnshire, for east, south and west parts of Lincolnshire, began to broadcast from studios in Chelmsford Street.[citation needed]

Lincoln's second largest private employer is James Dawson and Son, a belting and hose manufacturer founded in Lincoln in the late 19th century, which is located on the city's Tritton Road next to the University of Lincoln, it still operates using a coal-fired boiler. Dawson's became part of the Hull-based Fenner group in the late 1970s.[citation needed]

During the 13th century, Lincoln was the third largest city in England and was a favourite of more than one king. During the First Barons' War, it became caught up in the strife between the king and the rebel barons, who had allied with the French. It was here and at Dover that the French and Rebel army was defeated. In the aftermath of the battle, the town was pillaged for having sided with Prince Louis.[21]

The Lincolnshire LEA was ranked 32nd in the country based on the percentage of pupils attaining at least 5 A*–C grades at GCSE including maths and English (62.2% compared with the national average of 58.2%).[51]

Lincoln is the county town of Lincolnshire and offers a unique, heritage city experience.

Lincoln City were notably the first club managed by Graham Taylor, who managed the English national football team from 1990 to 1993. He was at Lincoln City from 1972 to 1977, during which time the club won promotion from the Fourth Division as champions in 1976 – The club also won the Football League Division Three North title on three separate occasions, a joint record.

There are three Special Needs schools in Lincoln: Sincil Sports College (11y-16y), St Christopher's School (3y-16y) and St Francis Community Special School (2y-18y). All provide specialist care for children and youngsters in the locality.

Other local media outlets include Bailgate Independent,[55] and Lincolnista.[56]

Other attractions include the Museum of Lincolnshire Life and the Sir Joseph Banks Conservatory at the Lawn, adjacent to Lincoln Castle. Tranquil destinations close by include Whisby Nature Reserve and Hartsholme Country Park (including the Swanholme Lakes Local Nature Reserve), while noisier entertainment can be found at Waddington airfield, Scampton airfield (base of the RAF's Red Arrows jet aerobatic team), the County Showground or the Cadwell Park motor racing circuit near Louth.

By the Georgian era, Lincoln's fortunes began to pick up, thanks in part to the Agricultural Revolution. The re-opening of the Foss Dyke canal allowed coal and other raw materials vital to industry to be more easily brought into the city.

The B1190 is an east-west road through Lincoln, starting from the Nottinghamshire-Lincolnshire boundary on the (Roman) Foss Dyke and A57 and finishing in the east at Thimbleby on the A158 near Horncastle. It originally terminated at the Canwick Road junction, then was extended to the west.[citation needed]

Another development, still in progress in 2016, is named Lindongate.[34] It will include a new department store, shops, a hotel, flats and new transport facilities.

The city is crowned by Lincoln Cathedral, one of Europe’s finest examples of Gothic architecture, which sits across a picturesque cobbled square from Lincoln Castle. The building of the Castle, as with the Cathedral, was commissioned by William the Conqueror in the 11th century so there is a wealth of history and heritage to discover there.

The £19-million A46 (north/west) bypass was opened in December 1985, with the (eastern) A15 bypass scheduled to commence construction in 2016, and the final southern part of the Lincoln ring road still not approved as at summer 2016.

Lincoln was once served by two railway stations, but since the closure of Lincoln St. Marks in 1985, Lincoln Central is the only station serving the city. Lincoln Central has five platforms and a steady flow of trains and passengers. Trains run to various destinations including Newark-on-Trent, Grimsby and Peterborough. Virgin Trains East Coast run a direct train service to London, calling at Newark, Peterborough and Stevenage. One service in each direction operates daily.[46]

In the post-war years after 1945, new suburbs were built, but heavy industry declined towards the end of the 20th century, mimicking the wider economic profile of the United Kingdom. More people are nevertheless still employed today in Lincoln building gas turbines than anything else.[citation needed]

The city is a tourist centre and those who come do so to visit the numerous historic buildings including the cathedral, the castle, and the Medieval Bishop's Palace.

Most buildings were built after 2001.[citation needed] The University changed its name to the University of Lincoln in September 2002. In the 2005–06 academic year, 8,292 full-time undergraduates were studying at the university and by 2010–11, 11,900 students were registered as studying there.[48]

Lincoln has hirebikes across the city, picturesque cycle routes, and cycle-friendly places to stay.

In the two world wars, Lincoln switched to war production. The first ever tanks were invented, designed and built in Lincoln by William Foster & Co. during the First World War and population growth provided more workers for even greater expansion. The tanks were tested on land now covered by Tritton Road (in the south-west suburbs of the city). During the Second World War, Lincoln produced a vast array of war goods, from tanks, aircraft, munitions and military vehicles.[citation needed]

Student publication The Linc[54] is available both online and in print and targets the University of Lincoln's growing student population.

During this period the Latin name Lindum Colonia was shortened in Old English to become first Lindocolina, then Lincylene.[9]

The earliest origins of Lincoln can be traced to the remains of an Iron Age settlement of round wooden dwellings (which were discovered by archaeologists in 1972) that have been dated to the 1st century BC.[citation needed] This settlement was built by a deep pool (the modern Brayford Pool) in the River Witham at the foot of a large hill (on which the Normans later built Lincoln Cathedral and Lincoln Castle).

Coupled with the arrival of the railway links, Lincoln boomed again during the Industrial Revolution, and several world-famous companies arose, such as Ruston's, Clayton's, Proctor's and William Foster's. Lincoln began to excel in heavy engineering, building locomotives, steam shovels and all manner of heavy machinery.

When Magna Carta was drawn up in 1215, one of the witnesses was Hugh of Wells, Bishop of Lincoln. One of only four surviving originals of the document is preserved in Lincoln Castle.

Lincoln offers great parking facilities around the city and in the city centre. For locations, fees and opening hours please see:

Lincoln's regional bus services provide a great method of transport to get to Lincoln and to move around the city.

The Bishops of Lincoln were among the magnates of medieval England: the Diocese of Lincoln, the largest in England, had more monasteries than the rest of England put together, and the diocese was supported by large estates.

Lincoln

Further education courses in Lincoln are provided by Lincoln College, which is the largest education institution in Lincolnshire, with 18,500 students, of whom 2,300 are full-time.[49] There is also a specialist music college, Access To Music, currently with approximately 140 students, all full-time.[50]

You can explore the area’s history in museums and attractions across the city – most of which are free – including The Collection, the Museum of Lincolnshire Life, and Lincoln Guildhall. The best way for an overview of the city is from the top deck of the sightseeing open-top bus where live commentary from friendly guides will let you in to all Lincoln’s secrets and stories.

During the 14th century, the city's fortunes began to decline. The lower city was prone to flooding, becoming increasingly isolated, and plagues were common. In 1409, the city was made a county corporate. The oldest surviving secular drama in English, The Interlude of the Student and the Girl (c. 1300), may have originated from Lincoln.

The origins of the name Lincoln may come from this period, when the settlement is thought to have been named in the Brythonic language of Iron Age Britain's Celtic inhabitants as Lindon "The Pool",[7] presumably referring to Brayford Pool (compare the etymology of the name Dublin, from the Gaelic dubh linn "black pool"). The extent of this original settlement is unknown as its remains are now buried deep beneath the later Roman and medieval ruins and modern Lincoln.

Lincoln Central railway station is located in the south of the city centre within easy walking distance of shopping in the city.

The Collection, of which the Usher Gallery is now a part, is an important attraction. Housed partly in a recently opened, purpose-built venue, it currently contains over 2,000,000 objects, and was one of the four finalists for the 2006 Gulbenkian Prize. Any material from official archaeological excavations in Lincolnshire is eventually deposited in The Collection so it is growing all the time.

From luxury hotels to quaint guesthouses, a warm welcome awaits.

Around the Tritton Road (B1003) trading estate, many new businesses have begun trading from large units with car parking. Lincoln has a choice of seven large national supermarkets (Tesco, Asda, Sainsbury, Waitrose, Morrisons, Aldi and Lidl). The St Mark's Square complex has Debenhams as its flagship store and an accompanying trading estate with well-known chain stores.

Two popular culture websites are based from the city of Lincoln; Faux Magazine, an online arts & culture website & Shout4Music, an online music publication.