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There are various light industrial estates and business parks located on the fringes of Carlisle and on former industrial sites close to the city centre. The largest being the Kingstown Industrial Estate, which is located just off the A7 road near to the M6 motorway.
RAF Carlisle also known as 14 MU was located at Kingstown near the present-day Asda. The station closed in 1996 after nearly sixty years in a variety of roles. First established as RAF Kingstown in 1938, it was originally a bomber station, then one of the RAF's Elementary Flying Training Schools and latterly a post-war storage facility.
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Standing proudly in the city it has dominated for nine centuries, Carlisle Castle remained a working fortress until well within living memory. It has withstood many sieges, contained a valuable royal prisoner, and been home to the King's Own Royal Border Regiment. Discover the castle's turbulent past in the fascinating family-friendly exhibition. Explore medieval castle rooms as well as 19th century military buildings, and visit Cumbria's Museum of Military Life.
In the early 19th century textile mills, engineering works and food manufacturers built factories in the city mostly in the Denton Holme, Caldewgate and Wapping suburbs in the Caldew Valley. These included Carr's of Carlisle, Kangol, Metal Box and Cowans Sheldon. Shaddon Mill, in Denton Holme, became famous for having the worlds 8th tallest chimney and was the largest cotton mill in England.
A large Roman fort is established on the site of the later castle. This becomes the nucleus for a prosperous town called Luguvalium, occupied by the Romans until the end of the 4th century
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The castle is used as a reivers' prison. The notorious reiver William Armstrong ('Kinmont Willie') is rescued when armed friends use ladders to break into the castle.
Carlisle is the only city in Cumbria. The city centre is largely pedestrianised and the Lanes shopping centre is home to around 75 stores.
The coat of arms of Carlisle City Council are those granted to the city council of the County Borough of Carlisle by the College of Arms on 7 July 1924. These arms are derived from more ancient designs of or relating to Carlisle and its governance.
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Cumbria has more microbreweries than any other county[according to whom?] and supply a variety of ales to pubs and restaurants throughout Carlisle.
Between Upperby and Botcherby is Harraby a former village once part of St Cuthbert Without and the largest suburb of Carlisle. Harraby is subdivided into Harraby East, New Harraby, Harraby Green, Old Harraby, Petteril Bank and the Durranhill Industrial Estate. Adjoining Harraby to the south but outside the former borough boundary is the hamlet of Carleton.
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A border city, and the second most northerly city in England, Carlisle predominantly spans the flood plain of the River Eden. Commercially, it is linked to the rest of England via the M6 motorway, and to the Scottish Lowlands via the A74(M) and M74 motorways.
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Find out more about the history of Carlisle Castle
Traffic in the Carlisle area, especially at rush hour, is a significant problem and in 2012 a bypass opened to take traffic from west Cumbria heading to the M6 away from the city centre.
In the 1980s The Lanes, the winding narrow alleyways of housing which cut through the eastern block of the city centre had not changed much at all since medieval times was renovated. The area was transformed into a shopping centre and library which opened in 1986. This was complemented in 1989 when Carlisle city centre was pedestrianised.
Carlisle is approximately 25 miles north of the northern edge of the Lake District, which is home to some of Britain's best restaurants.
In the north of Carlisle are the suburbs of Kingstown, Lowry Hill and Moorville, formerly part of the parish of Kingmoor. To the south of them are Stanwix, Edentown, Etterby, St Ann's Hill and Belah which were added to Carlisle in 1912. The parish of Stanwix Rural exists but only includes a small part of Carlisle's urban area, Whiteclosegate.
The city's Guildhall Museum is based in a 14th-century house and the Border Regiment Military Museum is in the castle.
Carlisle elects 12 county councillors to the Cumbria County Council.
The University of Cumbria has four campuses in Carlisle on Fusehill Street, Brampton Road, Paternoster Row and Newcastle Street. The university provides a wide range of degree courses in higher education such as Applied Computing, Applied Psychology, Art, Business, Law, Media, Social Work and Teacher Education.
Carlisle became a major railway centre on the West Coast Main Line with connections to the east. At one time seven companies used Carlisle Citadel railway station. Before the building of the Citadel railway station the city had several other railway stations, including London Road railway station. Carlisle had the largest railway marshalling yard in Europe at Kingmoor which, reduced in size, is operational and used by railfreight companies.
The population density was 96.9/km2 (251/sq mi) and for every 100 females, there were 93.7 males. Of those aged 16–74 in Carlisle, 31.9% had no academic qualifications, significantly higher than 28.9% in all of England. Although Carlisle's ethnic breakdown is similar to that of the wider county of Cumbria, it is different from that of England. In comparison to national averages, Carlisle has a low proportion of non-whites.
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The introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution began a process of socioeconomic transformation in Carlisle, which developed into a densely populated mill town. This, combined with its strategic position, allowed for the development of Carlisle as an important railway town, with seven railway companies sharing Carlisle railway station.
Tourist Information Centre in the old Town Hall.
In the Civil War the castle is garrisoned for Charles I. The Scots and Parliamentarians starve out the castle. Almost a year later, the garrison finally surrenders.
Until the year 400, the Roman occupation fluctuated in importance.[clarification needed] At one time, it broke off from Rome when Marcus Carausius assumed power over the territory. He was assassinated and suffered Damnatio Memoriae, but a surviving reference to him has been uncovered in Carlisle. Coins excavated in the area suggest that Romans remained in Carlisle until the reign of Emperor Valentinian II from 375 to 392.
English Heritage shares the castle with the Territorial Army, the county's emergency planning services and Cumbria's Museum of Military Life.
Along the City of Carlisle's northern extent is the Solway Firth, which forms the western section of the Anglo-Scottish border, and thus divides the city from Dumfries and Galloway, one of the council areas of Scotland. To the east is the English county of Northumberland; to the south is the district of Eden and to the west and south-west the borough of Allerdale, both in the county of Cumbria.
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