After the United States joined the war, a number of American cryptographers were posted to Hut 3, and from May 1943 onwards there was close co-operation between British and American intelligence. (See 1943 BRUSA Agreement.) In contrast, the Soviet Union was never officially told of Bletchley Park and its activities – a reflection of Churchill's distrust of the Soviets even during the US-UK-USSR alliance imposed by the Nazi threat.
Subsequently, other listening stations – the Y-stations, such as the ones at Chicksands in Bedfordshire, Beaumanor Hall, Leicestershire (where the headquarters of the War Office "Y" Group was located) and Beeston Hill Y Station in Norfolk – gathered raw signals for processing at Bletchley. Coded messages were taken down by hand and sent to Bletchley on paper by motorcycle despatch riders or (later) by teleprinter.
Hut 4 also decoded a manual system known as the dockyard cipher, which sometimes carried messages that were also sent on an Enigma network. Feeding these back to Hut 8 provided excellent "cribs" for Known-plaintext attacks on the daily naval Enigma key.
West Bletchley civil parish covers that part of Milton Keynes that is south of Standing Way (A421), west of the West Coast Main Line and north of the Varsity Line.
Five weeks before the outbreak of war, Warsaw's Cipher Bureau revealed its achievements in breaking Enigma to astonished French and British personnel. The British used the Poles' information and techniques, and the Enigma clone sent to them in August 1939, which greatly increased their (previously very limited) success in decrypting Enigma messages.
Bletchley grew from an obscure hamlet on the road from Fenny Stratford to Buckingham with the arrival of the London and North Western Railway in 1845 and its subsequent junction with the Oxford-Cambridge Varsity Line shortly afterwards. Bletchley grew rapidly to service the junction. Bletchley railway station was for many years an important node on the railway. It is now one of the four stations which serve Milton Keynes.
Bletchley Park was known as "B.P." to those who worked there. "Station X" (X = Roman numeral ten), "London Signals Intelligence Centre", and "Government Communications Headquarters" were all cover names used during the war. (The formal posting of the many "Wrens" – members of the Women's Royal Naval Service – working there was to HMS Pembroke V.)
Hi, is it really a half day train ride from Euston Station to Bletchly park? Thank you.
The wartime needs required the building of additional accommodation.
In addition to the wooden huts, there were a number of brick-built "blocks".
Non-naval Enigma messages were deciphered in Hut 6, followed by translation, indexing and cross-referencing, in Hut 3. Only then was it sent out to the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), the intelligence chiefs in the relevant ministries, and later on to high-level commanders in the field.
The only direct enemy damage to the site was done 20–21 November 1940 by three bombs probably intended for Bletchley railway station; Hut 4, shifted two feet off its foundation, was winched back into place as work inside continued.
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I will be visiting Bletchley Park on Monday, 17th August 2015 - is it advisable to purchase entrance tickets ahead of time or on the day? Will there be a guided walking tour that day and should I book for this too, ahead of time? Thank you .
Nevertheless, there were security leaks. Jock Colville, the Assistant Private Secretary to Winston Churchill, recorded in his diary on 31 July 1941, that the newspaper proprietor Lord Camrose had discovered Ultra and that security leaks "increase in number and seriousness". Without doubt, the most serious of these was that Bletchley Park had been infiltrated by John Cairncross, the notorious Soviet mole and member of the Cambridge Spy Ring, who leaked Ultra material to Moscow.
At its peak, GC&CS was reading approximately 4,000 messages per day. As a hedge against enemy attack most bombes were dispersed to installations at Adstock and Wavendon (both later supplanted by installations at Stanmore and Eastcote), and Gayhurst.
An outpost of the Government Code and Cypher School had been set up in Hong Kong in 1935, the Far East Combined Bureau (FECB). The FECB naval staff moved in 1940 to Singapore, then Colombo, Ceylon, then Kilindini, Mombasa, Kenya. They succeeded in deciphering Japanese codes with a mixture of skill and good fortune. The Army and Air Force staff went from Singapore to the Wireless Experimental Centre at Delhi, India.
Bletchley, in common with other stations on the Marston Vale line, is covered by the Marston Vale Community Rail Partnership. The Partnership aims to increase use of the line by getting local people involved with their local line.
The parish has a population of 20,994 according to the 2001 census. The districts and neighbourhoods in the parish are:
Using Sat-Nav? Please enter Sherwood Drive, Bletchley, MK3 6DS, as the postal address may take you to the wrong location.
Photo: Wrens (members of the Women's Royal Naval Service) at Bletchley with Colossus, the world's first electronic programmable computer, in 1942. (SSPL/Getty Images)
For many years, Denbigh has been an important employment area on the immediate north-eastern outskirts of Bletchley along Watling Street, although still in the civil parish of Bletchley and Fenny Stratford. Perhaps its most famous residents are Milton Keynes Dons F.C. (at stadiummk in Denbigh North), and their former club sponsors Marshall Amplification (just across Watling Street in Denbigh West).
The Colossus and Tunny galleries are open daily. The rest of the Museum is open to the public every Thursday, Saturday and Sunday afternoons and most bank holidays, and by appointment for groups only, at other times. There are guided tours on Tuesday afternoons. There is a modest admission charge to the museum to help cover overheads.
After the War, the secrecy imposed on Bletchley staff remained in force, so that most relatives never knew more than that a child, spouse, or parent had done some kind of secret war work. Churchill referred to the Bletchley staff as "the geese that laid the golden eggs and never cackled". That said, occasional mentions of the work performed at Bletchley Park slipped the censor's net and appeared in print.
In the early 1960s, there was a further substantial expansion of the town, with people from London being relocated by the Greater London Council, mainly to a London overspill estate to the south of Water Eaton. The population of the urban district increased from 5,500 in 1921 to 17,000 in 1961.
Bletchley has a Non-League football club Bletchley Town F.C. and a rugby union club, Bletchley RUFC, both of which play at Manor Fields.
At the end of 2010, work on the high-level platform or the Saxon Street entrance had yet to begin. As of May 2014[update], this remains the case. However, on 7 July 2014, the South East Midlands Local Enterprise Partnership announced that the Government had allocated £64.6M funding for various projects that includes a £1.5M contribution towards the cost of this work.
Newton Leys is a new development with housing for up to 1650 homes with employment areas, shops, a school, community facilities, new park, hotel and leisure facilities built on two former Newton Longville Brickworks and farmland. Although it forms a part of the Bletchley and Fenny Stratford Town, it is beyond the Town boundary marker, and is separated from Bletchley and Fenny Stratford by the West Coast Main Line, and from West Bletchley parish by the Oxford to Bletchley railway line.
Services also operate hourly between Bletchley and Bedford on the Marston Vale Line on Monday to Saturday only.
There are ticket barriers controlling access to the platforms.
By mid-1945, well over 100 personnel were involved with this operation, which co-operated closely with the FECB and the US Signal intelligence Service at Arlington Hall, Virginia. In 1999, Michael Smith wrote that: "Only now are the British codebreakers (like John Tiltman, Hugh Foss, and Eric Nave) beginning to receive the recognition they deserve for breaking Japanese codes and cyphers".
Most German messages decrypted at Bletchley were produced by one or another version of the Enigma cipher machine, but an important minority were produced by the even more complicated twelve-rotor Lorenz SZ42 on-line teleprinter cipher machine.
In January 1945, at the peak of codebreaking efforts, some 9,000 personnel were working at Bletchley; over 12,000 different people (some 80% of them women, primarily seconded from Britain's armed forces and Civil Service) were assigned there at various points throughout the war.
After the war, the site passed through a succession of hands and saw a number of uses, including as a teacher-training college and local GPO headquarters. By 1991, the site was nearly empty and the buildings were at risk of demolition for redevelopment.
In early 1942, a six-month crash course in Japanese, for 20 undergraduates from Oxford and Cambridge, was started by the Inter-Services Special Intelligence School in Bedford, in a building across from the main Post Office. This course was repeated every six months until war's end. Most of those completing these courses worked on decoding Japanese naval messages in Hut 7, under John Tiltman.
In the urban growth of the Victorian period brought by the railway, the town merged with nearby Fenny Stratford. Fenny Stratford had been constituted an urban district (with Simpson) in 1895, and Bletchley was added in 1898. The urban district was renamed Bletchley in 1911.
There is also one train to and from Crewe on weekdays. Additional London Midland services to/from Euston start and terminate here during the rush hour.
The town name is Anglo-Saxon and means Blæcca's clearing. It was first recorded in manorial rolls in the 12th century as Bicchelai, then later as Blechelegh (13th century) and Blecheley (14th–16th centuries).
Bletchley is a constituent town of Milton Keynes, in the ceremonial county of Buckinghamshire, England. It is situated in the south-west of Milton Keynes, and is split between the civil parishes of Bletchley and Fenny Stratford and West Bletchley.
Southwards, London Midland operate services to Watford Junction & London Euston (3 per hour off-peak). Also, Southern runs hourly trains to South Croydon via the West London Line. Northwards, both operators run services to Milton Keynes Central, with London Midland continuing on to Northampton, Rugby and Birmingham New Street.