In September 2012, he was appointed to the UK Cabinet as the Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice from 2012 to 2015. He was the first non-lawyer to have served as Lord Chancellor for at least 440 years. He was the Leader of the House of Commons and the Lord President of the Council between 2015 and 2016.
Grayling also challenged Tony Blair and his wife Cherie over the money they made from lectures while Blair was Prime Minister. He also challenged minister Stephen Byers over his handling of the Railtrack collapse.
Entered the House of Commons on 7 June 2001 — General election
Pro-EU MPs branded his remarks “dangerous scaremongering” and “gutter politics”.
Mrs May’s deal is widely expected to suffer a heavy defeat when it comes before the Commons next week prompting intense speculation over what will happen next.
Chris Grayling said the rail and tram hybrids could play a pivotal role in the future development of the area's Metrolink system.
"History shows us appeasement only emboldens the far right and impoverishing the country through Brexit will only increase resentment.
Chris Grayling has been the MP for Epsom and Epwell since 2001.
Grayling's proposed cuts to legal aid were widely criticised by the legal profession. In May 2013, 90 Queen's Counsels signed a letter sent to the Daily Telegraph that branded the cuts "unjust", as they would seriously undermine the rule of law. 6 January 2014 saw the first strike in British history by barristers and solicitors in protest at the cuts. In February 2014, he introduced the Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015 to the House of Commons. The Bill included measures to outlaw "revenge porn". In October 2014, Grayling unveiled the Conservative Party's proposals for reforms to human rights in order to curb the European Court of Human Rights' influence over British court rulings, whilst honouring the text of the original Convention on Human Rights in a British Bill of Rights and Responsibilities.
Chris Grayling campaigned to leave the European Union Source: BBC
The first tram trains in the UK started running in Sheffield in the autumn (pictured above) and are one of range of options being considered by Transport for Greater Manchester.
Grayling was born in London and grew up in Buckinghamshire, where he was educated at the Royal Grammar School, High Wycombe. He then went to Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, where he graduated with an upper-second class Bachelor of Arts degree in history in 1984.
But there are growing calls to delay Brexit if Parliament cannot reach a consensus prompting fears among some Brexiteers that Britain may not end up leaving the bloc for months if at all.
Grayling was selected to contest the Labour-held marginal seat of Warrington South at the 1997 general election, but was defeated by Labour candidate Helen Southworth by 10,807 votes. He was elected as a councillor for the Hillside ward in the London Borough of Merton in 1998 and remained on the council until 2002.
On 7 January a convoy of 89 lorries tested the network's readiness to deal with the expected extra congestion caused in the event of a no-deal Brexit.
This data was produced by TheyWorkForYou from a variety of sources. Voting information from Public Whip.
The vehicles gathered at the disused Manston Airport in Thanet, before driving 20 miles to the Port of Dover and back.
Sworn in as Lord Chancellor on 1 October 2012 at Westminster Abbey, he was elected an Honorary Bencher of Gray's Inn on 11 December 2012, due in part to his lack of legal qualifications. He was the first non-lawyer to have served as Lord Chancellor for at least 440 years. (It was reported that the last such non-lawyer was the Earl of Shaftesbury in 1672–73; but the Earl was admitted to Lincoln's Inn in 1638.) Grayling's appointment was widely seen as a return to a more hard line approach than that of his predecessor, Clarke. Grayling pursued a "tough justice" agenda, including ending automatic early release for terrorists and child rapists, ending simple cautions for serious offences, and introducing greater protections for householders who defend themselves against intruders. The leading human rights barrister Lord Pannick described Grayling's performance as "notable only for his attempts to restrict judicial reviews and human rights, his failure to protect the judiciary against criticism from his colleagues and the reduction of legal aid to a bare minimum."
Transport Secretary Chris Grayling revealed the figures following a parliamentary question submitted by London MP Tom Brake.
Grayling became known as a national politician through his "attack dog" pressure on leading Labour politicians. He was heavily involved in the questioning of David Blunkett, the then Work and Pensions Secretary, over his business affairs which led to Blunkett's resignation in 2005.
Mr Grayling said the money was to reimburse hauliers for the operational and time costs, and the owners of Manston airfield for site management.
He says the DfT wanted to support a start-up British business, but that the government would not "rule out additional capacity" from other big ferry providers.
Mr Lammy said: "This is a desperate attempt by a Government minister to use a tiny far-right minority to hold our democracy to ransom. It is gutter politics.
When the recording was released by The Observer, on 3 April 2010, Grayling's comments caused an angry response from gay rights campaigners, with Ben Summerskill, Chief Executive of the gay rights group Stonewall, saying that this position would be "illegal" and "very alarming to a lot of gay people who may have been thinking of voting Conservative". Lord Mandelson, the most senior gay minister in the (then Labour) Government, added that the comment showed that the Conservative Party had not changed, that "when the camera is on they say one thing, but when the camera is off they say another". Conservative Party leader David Cameron was subsequently urged to "back or sack" Grayling, with gay rights campaigner Peter Tatchell saying that "Cameron's silence is worrying. Many voters – gay and straight – will be disturbed by his failure to swiftly disown Grayling's support for homophobic discrimination. What does this say about the sincerity and seriousness of his commitment to gay equality?"
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Profile photo: © Parliament (CC-BY 3.0)
On multiple occasions in 2014 and 2015, Fathers 4 Justice protesters targeted Grayling's constituency home in Ashtead, Surrey in January and October 2015. Other incidents included a weekend protest camp set up outside his house by four protesters.
He served as the Leader of the House of Commons and the Lord President of the Council between 2015 and 2016. Grayling was the 'official cheerleader in chief' for Theresa May during her leadership campaign and was appointed as Transport Secretary after she become Prime Minister in 2016.
Undisclosed additional costs would also have been incurred by Kent Police and Kent County Council, he added.
One of Grayling's first acts at the Ministry of Justice was to commence a project to change the way offenders were rehabilitated in an effort to cut reoffending rates. Under a system of "payment by results", private companies as well as charities were to play a greater role in looking after offenders on licence in the community. Grayling's ban on books being sent into UK prisons was widely criticised by the Howard League for Penal Reform and the literary establishment, including Philip Pullman, Mark Haddon, Anthony Horowitz, Susan Hill and Emma Donoghue. The ban was described as obscene by Shaun Attwood of the TV show Banged Up Abroad who read over a thousand books in prison and credited books for being the lifeblood of rehabilitation.
The move was defended as being not about a ban on books being sent into prison, but about parcels being sent in, as giving prisons access to the latter would almost certainly increase the amount of contraband getting into the prison estate.
The High Court ruled the ban illegal in December 2015.
On stepping down from his role as Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Prisons Nick Harding criticised Grayling for "robustly" interfering with the contents of reports and Grayling's department for using financial controls to influence what was inspected, thereby threatening the independence of the Inspector's role.
Mr Grayling said there would be a "different tone" in British politics if Britain failed to leave the EU and predicted a "less tolerant society" and a "more nationalistic nation".
Tom Brake said: "This money would obviously have been better spent on the salaries of two nurses or police officers instead of a hare-brained scheme attempting to simulate the chaos associated with major No Deal linked disruption at Dover."
The government has asked Keith Williams, the deputy chairman of department store John Lewis, to review the railways and he has refused to rule out nationalisation as a possible recommendation to government.
"MPs need to remember that Britain, its people and its traditions are the mother of Parliaments. We ignore that and the will of the people at our peril."
A Conservative-commissioned report by the independent House of Commons library suggested that, depending on how figures were calculated, Grayling's claims may have been justifiable and that violent crime may have risen in the period between 1998 and 2009. The incumbent Home Secretary, Alan Johnson, called Grayling's use of crime statistics "dodgy" and said that the British Crime Survey clearly showed that violent crime had reduced by 41% over the same period.
As Shadow Home Secretary, Grayling provoked controversy in August 2009 when he compared Manchester's Moss Side area to the American TV crime drama The Wire. His comments received angry responses from Manchester locals and police. Having been out on patrol for a day with the police, observing the results of a shooting at a house, he described himself as having witnessed an "urban war". Police responded that gang-related shootings in Greater Manchester had fallen by 82 percent from the previous year and that to speak of "urban war" was "sensationalistic".
Grayling served on the Environment, Transport and the Regions Select Committee from 2001 until he was promoted to the Opposition Whips' Office by Iain Duncan Smith in 2002, moving to become a Spokesman for Health later in the year. He became a Spokesman for Education and Skills by Michael Howard in 2003.