Belenenses won the 1945–46 Primeira Liga, making them the first of two clubs aside from the Big Three to win the league title, the other club being Boavista FC. The club also have 6 Championship of Portugal/Portuguese Cup titles.

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The club has also played in the European Cup Winners' Cup, as well as the UEFA Cup. In the 1987–88 UEFA Cup season, the club played Barcelona; in the first leg, they lost 2–0 in the Camp Nou, winning 1–0 in Lisbon at the Estádio do Restelo with Mapuata scoring. Belenenses won their sixth, and to date last, Taça de Portugal on 28 May 1989, beating Benfica 2–1.[7] Also that season, they ousted holders Bayer Leverkusen from Cup-Winners' Cup.

The 2005–06 season saw the football team finishing fourth from bottom, which would mean relegation for the team. However, the team won a subsequent appeal that sent Gil Vicente down instead. With this reprieve, the team played in the top level of Portuguese football once again. On 27 May 2007 Belenenses reached their first Taça de Portugal final since their 1989 triumph, and most recent to date, but were beaten 1–0 by Sporting.[8]

Cabral Ferreira, who served as president of Belenenses from 2005 until 2008, died on 26 February 2008, of a long illness.[9] Belenenses were relegated in 2010 to the Segunda Liga, and secured promotion back to the Primeira Liga in March 2013, their longest stint out of the top division.

The main activities of the club are football, handball, basketball, futsal, athletics, and rugby union. The club has won major national championships in all these sports, but remains best known for its original activity, football.

Na época 2007/2008 em jogo a contar para a 16ª jornada da BWIN Liga entre o Belenenses e a Naval 1.º de Maio, a equipa do Belenenses utilizou indevidamente o jogador Meyong. Como consequência o Belenenses foi penalizado em 6 pontos (menos 3 por retirada da vitória e menos 3 por penalização), que resultaram numa queda na tabela classificativa e consequentemente o clube não foi à Liga Europa na época seguinte. Já à Naval 1.º de Maio foram atribuídos 3 pontos.[6]

The 2014–15 season Belenenses finished the championship in sixth place, and returned to European Competitions, Europa League.

They reached the 2015–16 group stages of Europa league after elminiating IFK Götenborg (2–1 agg.) and Altach (1–0 agg.) They ended 4th in their group after 1 surprising win against Basel on away 2–1. They had twice drawn 0–0 against Lech Poznań. And they lost the return match against Basel and both matches against Fiorentina.

CL=Campeonato da Liga (winners weren't considered Portuguese champions); 1D=First Division/League 2D=Second Division/League; 2H=Liga de Honra CWC=Cup Winners' Cup; UC=UEFA Cup FC=Fairs Cup; LAT=Latin Cup; IC=Intertoto Cup

Belenenses were the first club to compete in the UEFA Cup in a two-legged 3–3 draw with Hibernian (at the time one of Scotland's biggest teams) at the Estádio do Restelo in Belém.

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

L'ancien international algérien Hassan Yebda (32 ans) a signé à Belenenses.

1 Barcelona progressed to the Second round after winning a play-off match 3–2. 2 Shelbourne progressed to the Second round after winning a play-off match 2–1. 3 Velež Mostar progressed to the Third round after winning a penalty shoot-out 4–3.

Belenenses were relegated from the Primeira Liga for the first time in 1981–82, and have been relegated three other times since then.

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